What were the reasons for the decline of the Mughal Empire?
There were many reasons for the decline of the great Mughal Empire. Historians have been discussing it on many platforms and in multiple debates since 1857. If someone asks a student of the school, he may tell even very important factors that led the Mughal Empire towards its decline. The death of Aurangzeb Alamgir also has an impact that triggered the decline.
Reasons for the decline of the Mughal Empire
Weak Successors of Aurangzeb
After the death of Aurangzeb, the later Mughals could not govern the territories well. It was because of different factors. The wars of succession were a hindrance in the way of wise princes who could have ascended the throne. But, those who did not even how to fight a war at that time, became the emperors.
Role of Syed brothers in the decline of Mughal Empire
The role of the Syed brothers in the decline of the Mughal Empire cannot be forgotten. They played well for their interests and made the empire very weak. The Empire that Babur had established in the subcontinent had started to fade. Their influence in the Mughal court was significant, and they made emperors and kings whom they wanted. History named them “Kingmakers” as well. They murdered those princes who were against their illegal and unethical influence. Aurangzeb had asked their sons not to give these two brothers important posts in the court.
Mansabdari Nizam was not updated
It was Jalal Udin Mohammad Akbar who had first introduced Mansabdari Nizam. What is Mansabdari Nizam? It was the division of territories and states within the Mughal Empire and its ruler was called Mansabdar. It is known as Mansabdari Nizam. With time, there was the necessity of up-gradation in that system. Many mansabdars even started to fight with one and other. Some of them could not rule well and produce an economy in their jurisdiction. It also weakened the empire wholly.
Foreign invasions of Nadir Shah and Ahmed Shah Abdali
The invasion of Nadir Shah, Shah of Persia on India resulted in the loss of Mughals. He attacked India in 1739 and took away the valuables of the Mughals. He looted everything and there was bloodshed in the areas of the war zone where the Battle of Karnal was fought. He also took with him the Peacock throne and Kohinoor Diamond. It was a great loss to the crumbling Mughal Empire then.
Ahmed Shah Abdali fought 3rd battle of Panipat with Marathas. It is very popular that he came on the request of Shah Waliullah so that the cruelty of Marathas can be eliminated out of the subcontinent. He defeated Marathas but Mughals also faced economic losses.
Rise of East India Company and the Battle of Plassey
It was 1757 when East India company was multiplying its jurisdiction in the subcontinent. Nawab of Bengal, Siraj-ud-Daulah fought battle with the British forces and tried to save the state of Bengal. This war in history is known as the Battle of Plassey For your information, Bengal was the state where Mughals could get the highest revenue among its all states. Nawab failed to save Bengal and the company army annexed it by force. The revenue that had to come to the Mughals directly or indirectly now was the authority of the East India Company.