History of Pakistan

Fall of Mughal Empire and its reasons

Fall of Mughal Empire

Mughal Empire started to decline after the reign of Aurangzeb Alamgir but was completely ended after the War of Independence in 1857. There is a controversial debate on how did Mughal Empire ended. Some historians are of the conviction that external factors were so powerful to make it end. A number of reasons for the fall of the Mughal Empire are there.

Causes of the decline of Mughal Empire

A number of causes of the end of the great Mughal Empire altogether emerged to give it an end. I am of the conviction that the controversial things should not be discussed in competitive examinations like CSS. Among controversial things, there are two important personalities who are the epicenter of a heating debate among historians.

A school of thought supports Akbar’s governance style, and how he carried out justice with people. While other are averse to the ways Akbar ruled over the United India. So is the case with Auranzeb Alamgir. Although Alamgir had adopted a strict policy but has been called a religious person by many historians.

Instead of beating around the bush, I am writing here ten most important causes of the decline of Mughal Empire that every student has to study and make research on.

  1. Economic Crunch
  2. Mansabdari Nizam
  3. Role of Kingmaker brothers in Mughal Decline
  4. Arrival of Europeans
  5. Foreign Invasions
  6. Emergence of New Provinces
  7. Civil War, 1948
  8. Military Weaknesses and absence of Naval Force
  9. Annexations by the British East India Company

Economic Crunch

Aurangzeb Alamgir fought with Marathas for more than 20 years. In these frequent wars, the economy was declining but it was realized later. The management of economic resources crumbled when Aurangzeb left the world.

The rise and fall of Mughal Empire in India has been a subject of heating debate. The economy of the empire was declined comparatively when it ended after defeat in the war of independence, called by British, as Indian Mutiny 1857.

Mansabdari Nizam

In the reign of Akbar the Great, he introduced Mansabdari Nizam in the United India. He divided territories in the segments and appointed local chiefs to rule on. Later, this proved to be a wrong decision as the local tribe-chiefs could not maintain the integrity of the great Mughals.

Role of Syed Brothers in the Decline of Mughal Empire

Syed brothers; Sayyed Abdullah Khan and Sayyed Hussain Ali Khan, popular as kingmakers in the History of the Mughal Empire changed the dynamics of how Mughal emperors had expanded the empire. They chose the stupid over wise one. The wise princes were put under charges and they selected the stupid heirs of the great Mughal emperors.

In the reign of Mohammad Shah Rangeela, he ordered the both brothers to be killed by one way or other.

Arrival of Europeans

The coming of the British East India Company in the subcontinent, and other Dutch as well as Portuguese companies to settle in India caused a decrease in the influence of Mughals. They wanted to acclimatize themselves in India, and grow their economy up, even at the risk of cost of thousands lives.

These companies, especially British East India Company caused huge loss to the empire. And, they formed their own monopoly in Undivided India.

Foreign Invasions

Nadir Shah attacked India in 1739 to looting Mughal Empire. He took away “Peacock Throne” and “Kohinoor Diamond”, and torn into pieces the roofs of building which were made up of gold. He took away the main economic savings of Babur, Humayoun, Akbar, Jehangir, Shahjaha, Aurangzeb, and later Mughal Emperors.

Emergence of new provinces

In 1720, Bengal became a separate province. Hyderabad Deccan was also separated from the central Mughal governance. These two areas were the production of more than 80% of the economy of the Mughal Empire. It was also a significant loss to the economy of the Mughals.

Civil War, 1748

The war among several civilians groups, Europeans, and Mughal factions was also main cause of impending decline of, to be weakening empire.

It aroused the hatred against Mughal Empire. People were brainwashed by the European alliances that supported British East India Company, and the company wanted to take over, as they had realized that it was as easy as pie.

But, conquering Babur’s land was not really so easy. After defeating Nawab Siraaj-ud-Daulah in the battle of Plassey, and Tipu Sultan in 1799, took away the hopes of Indians who wanted to stabilize their ancestral Mughal rulers again, and to make the British people in India to return to their country.

Military and Naval Weaknesses

Do you know that Mughal Empire did not have any naval force? Owing to fights with East India Company, local chiefs, other Europeans, and Marathas, the Mughal Empire had lost its true military power. It was also one of the reasons for the end of Mughal Empire in India.

Annexations by the East India Company

British East India company annexed different regions with time. By doing that, the company was weakening Mughal Empire. In 1839, the company annexed Afghanistan.

In 1843, the company succeeded in getting control of the Sindh. Other areas were annexed too forcefully by fighting with Mughals.


These were the main reasons that will suffice for a student who wants to know a bit on the destined decline of Mughal Empire.